Nouvelles répartitions des tâches et des responsabilités dans les métiers de la création
Revue Techniques&Culture #5, janvier 2019 • EHESS
Article de Jérôme Guéneau
Le métier d’architecte est un métier de création très instrumenté dont les outils informatiques, et désormais collaboratifs, ont profondément transformé la pratique du dessin d’architecture et le statut même d’architecte : démonstration par Jérôme Guéneau à partir de la “révolution BIM” – Building Information Modeling.
BIM, an acronym for Building Information Modelling is a set of “collaborative” options and software programs developed for designing buildings. It replaces the traditional Computer Aided Drafting and Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools that were, up until recently, used by architects, engineers and design offices working in the building trade. Within the BIM program there is an integrated 3D rendering model made up of a set parametric, customizable objects or components able to hold an infinite amount of specifications with distinct qualities and attributes (chemical, mechanical, fitting, wear and tear, cost, maintenance etc.). These specifications are provided by all those collaborating on defining the model –architects, engineers, companies, clients, contractors, suppliers– and by information collected on a database and available on Big Data. Updating data relative to the model’s multiple components is made automatically and in real time. BIM is however having a disruptive effect on the very character and organization of work in the building trade: a collaborative system, always faster, with infinite data coordination and lability, its admirers eulogizing over the potential possibilities of a model programmed for future achievements: The predictability of the design elements, of the production and maintenance costs over the duration of a project’s life span, improved quantification and elimination of risk factors that are inherent in all business ventures. This article attempts to understand the implications of a new way of working in the building trade that requires a redistribution of roles brought about by a changing economy and new design and management tools.
Jérôme Guéneau est maître de conférences en TPCAU à l’école. Il enseigne notamment dans le département d’études de Master : Préexistence — Constitution diffusion et mutation des arts de l’architecture (DE1-Axe3)